Passive optical networks principles and practice pdf

 

    PDF | 2 hours read | On Jan 1, , Cedric F. Lam and others published Passive optical networks: Principles and practice. paimarlangkefgeekb.ml - Free Books & magazines. Passive Optical Networks This page intentionally left blank. Passive Optical Networks Principles and Practice. paimarlangkefgeekb.mlg/20/P_Docs/IEEE%%20PD - pdf. [LAM] C. Lam ( Ed.), Passive Optical Networks — Principles and Practice, Academic.

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    Passive Optical Networks Principles And Practice Pdf

    Passive Optical Networks Principles And Practice - [FREE] PASSIVE OPTICAL NETWORKS UPSC IES Syllabus PDF is available here. On this page, we . ISBN œ38œœ2 (URL: paimarlangkefgeekb.ml) passive optical networks, access networks, transport technology, virtual private networks, optical . Optical Networks. Passive Optical Networks - 1st Edition - ISBN: , Principles and Practice. 0 star rating.

    Yet, there is only a limited number of books in this area that give a coherent and comprehensive review of PON technologies. Most of the PON-related research materials are scattered around in journals, periodicals, conference proceedings, and a number of technical standards. Therefore, we feel that it is timely to publish a book that covers the different aspects of the PON technology. Although some of the standards are gaining more popularity over the others, none of them has become a clear winner yet. As demand picks up, the research and development in PON technologies also accelerates due to the heavy involvement of startup and incumbent vendors, system manufacturers, as well as component and chip companies. Unlike other access technologies, which use the conventional copper media for communications, PON makes use of optical fiber as the transmission medium, lasers and photodiodes as transmitters and detectors. Fiber optics are traditionally used in long-haul transmission systems. In the mean time, to understand PON as an access technology requires a good background of networking knowledge and media access control MAC protocols. Most people working on fiber communications are more focused on transmission properties of fiber, laser physics, etc. It is one of the purposes of this book to provide a balanced coverage of networking technologies, fiber-optic transmission technologies, and the electronics involved in PON system development. Very often, researchers in new technologies such as PON will be driven by the desire to demonstrate technical smartness and overlook practicality. This tends to generate a lot of literature which eventually becomes irrelevant due to economic reasons. As an access technology, PON equipment will be deployed at the end-user premises. Unlike backbone fiber systems, where cost is shared by all the users on the same network, end users will eventually bear the cost of PON equipment directly.

    Readers will gain an understanding of how to troubleshoot optical-fiber networks using an optical time-domain reflectometer OTDR , while learning the fundamental principles underlying the operation of these powerful testing instruments. From basic fiber optics and fiber testing, to detailed event-analysis techniques, this book covers the entire spectrum of time-domain optical cable test theory and applications.

    Careful assessment of critical networks is made easier with the use of an optical time-domain reflectometer OTDR , which measures the elapsed time and intensity of light reflected along an optical fiber.

    They are useful tools for locating problems in an optical network as they can compute the distance to breaks or attenuation. The accuracy and power of modern OTDRs often exceeds the skill of the operator using it! This book offers comprehensive, state-of-the-art information about time-domain fiber-optic testing.

    Passive Optical Networks: Principles and Practice

    Readers will gain an understanding of how to troubleshoot optical-fiber networks using an OTDR, while learning the fundamental principles underlying the operation of these powerful testing instruments. From basic fiber optics and fiber testing, to detailed event-analysis techniques, this book covers the entire spectrum of time-domain optical cable test theory.

    Summary: A good addition to the technical bookshelf Rating: 5 My company, Taliescent, makes measurement standards for fiber optic test instruments.

    His company provides live fiber optic training and makes training videos aimed at the technician and the installer market. During our conversation he mentioned that he co-authored a book on OTDRs.

    Figuring this would be a useful resource, I went to the Elsevier Publishers booth where they happened to have the book. I then told the booth lady that I publish an online fiber optic newsletter ftthblog. So she gave me the book for free. First, a little background on OTDRs. This was one of the first fiber optic test instruments introduced commercially 24 years ago and is still evolving and one of the most commonly used.

    Passive Optical Networks: Principles and Practice - PDF Free Download

    Basically an OTDR shoots a pulse of light into the fiber and monitors the reflections. From this measurement, the user can tell whats happening in a fiber network many kilometers downstream from where the measurement is made. For example, you can tell that there is break in the fiber 5. This is very useful information if you are troubleshooting or commisioning a fiber optic installation.

    This book is very good in that it was written by two scientists from Tektronix, Duwayne Anderson and Florian Bell, who have intricate knowledge of all the technical aspects, and by Larry Johnson, who is very familiar on how users interact with the instrument and what kind of information would be useful to them. This combination produced a book that is very readable but also provides enough meat for an engineer or a scientist.

    The book starts with an short history of the OTDR, moves on to a basic tutorial of fiber optics and then dives in to the various technical aspects of the insides of anOTDR. The second part of the book focuses on the various types of measurements that can be made with the OTDR and finally finishes up with some advice on selecting the appropriate OTDR, since they come in many flavors. The book can be used in several different ways. Also, it functions as a good reference that you keep on the bookshelf.

    Finally, its a good textbook for a course on OTDRs aimed at technicians or even engineers, since it has ample references and study questions at the end of each chapter. As an added bonus, there is a training CD from the Light Brigade included with the book that provides some good videos on how an OTDR is used in the field. Summary: All about OTDRs and much more Rating: 5 In two of us Bell and Anderson sat in our offices, across the hall from each other, discussing the history of optical time-domain reflectometers OTDRs , the technology required to build these amazing machines, and the surprising depth of complexity associated with their use.

    As we discussed these issues, our conversation began to focus on the idea of a comprehensive engineering guide for OTDR users.

    It seemed obvious that, with increasing popularity and use of OTDRs, an authoritative text on the subject was needed. PON tree architecture and Figure 2.

    Taxonomy of approaches for energy efficient PONs. Table 1. Power consumption mW of discrete components in front-end ONU receiver.

    Passive Optical Networks

    Power consumption mW of integrated components in front-end ONU receiver. This section provides a classification of the approaches proposed so far and underlines their characteristics. Thus three classes of approaches are identified, as depicted in Figure 2: physical, data link, and joint. They can be further divided into: device oriented approaches and service oriented approaches. Device oriented approaches aim at reducing the energy consumption of the devices enabling the services provided by each sublayer.

    Device oriented approaches include equipping transceivers with link rate adaptation i. Service oriented approaches aim at improving the performance of the service provided by a sublayer e.

    For example, current values for clock recovery Trec are summarized in Table 4 for discrete and integrated components. Table 4.

    Current values for clock recovery in PONs. In principle, Data Link layer approaches require no physical layer modifications but low power mode support in the devices. Other approaches combine dynamic sleep mode with upstream and downstream scheduling to minimize the impact of putting ONU to sleep on traffic delay [15].

    In standard bodies, sleep mode has been standardized for Ethernet interfaces [9]. ITU-T G.

    The approaches mainly differ in the behavior of the ONU transmitter and receiver when traffic must be neither transmitted or received at the ONU. In [8] it is showed that the combination of sleep mode i. However in case of power shedding all the packets arriving to the UNI are lost. Thus power shedding can be applied only during long time of ONU inactivity. In general, approaches are classified as joint when they cannot be implemented separately.

    Other studies consider the combination of sleep mode and adaptive link rate to optimize power consumption while adapting to the real traffic demand [18]. Finally, some studies propose the combination of modified ONU architectures with dynamic sleep mode for improving the clock recovery after the ONU wake up [19].

    In this way the overhead time is minimized and the achievable energy efficiency increases. ONUs are turned on during their assigned time slot and, then, they are switched off. First of all, how much energy sleep mode can save and which are the key parameters affecting its performance are examined. Pa and Ps are the power consumption of ONU in active state i. It is shown that only by decreasing both the power consumed during sleep mode and the overhead time high energy savings can be obtained.

    Even though components with very low energy consumption are developed, if they are not capable of recovering the clock quickly, high energy savings cannot be achieved. The vice versa is also true. As in the previous scenario, FBA is utilized for downstream transmission. The cycle time Tc is the same for both downstream transmission rate. Moreover, even in this case, both ratios must be minimized for obtaining better performance with sleep mode than with ALR.

    From this survey, some rules of thumb have been obtained. Then to achieve very high energy efficiency both the ratio between powers consumed during sleep and active mode and the ratio between time needed for clock recovery after returning from sleep mode and cycle time must be minimized.

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